Thursday, January 29, 2015

Hyderabad Nizam

(He thuziak hi Hyderabad Mizo Association Annual Magazine 2008, VIRTHLILENG ah chhuah ani tawh a, athupui hi thianpa sawmtea nen chan kan insem avangin 'Tunhma Hyderabad Part-II' ti a chhuah ani-Lalzarzoa, Dept. of History, University of Hyderabad)

History zirlaite hnenah ah “Mughal Lal Aurangzeb tluk chhiatna chhan eng eng te nge?” tih zawt ta i la, a chhanna an sawi zingah Deccan Policy/Deccan campaign tih an sawi tel ngei ang. India hmar lama lalram zau tak an neih tawh sa duh khawp lovin Aurangzeb khan a lalram zauh turin Deccan* lamah kum 25 chhung teh meuh a thang bo a nih kha. Deccan ah hian Shia Muslim Lal ten ro an rel a, chutih laiin India hmar lama Mughal Lal te kha Sunni Muslim an ni thung a. Aurangzeba khan Deccan lamah hian hmelma lian deuh deuh a nei a chung te chu Shia Muslim lal hnuaia awm Bijapur leh Golconda.te leh Maratha lal Shivaji te an ni. Chung ho do tur chuan kum 1682 khan Deccan a pan ta a, nungdama hawng leh ta lovin Deccan ramah hian kum 1707 khan a boral ta nghe nghe a ni. Aurangzeb Deccan policy avang hian Hyderabad khawpui hi Nizam lalram ti a hriat leh koh a lo ni chho ta a ni.
Pasaltha ralramah chham ang a zal e:
Hyderabad khawpui daifem Golconda kulh atanga chhim lam hla vak lo Himayatsagar an tih bul lawk Atapur hmun ah hian thlan pakhat lar lem lo leh mite ngaih pawimawh em em nilo a awm a. Chu thlan ah chuan Aurangzeb-a sipai General a hming Chin Qalich Khan (Khwaja Abid tia hriatlar zawk) chu phum a ni a. Tunlai thlengin chu sipai general thlan chuan mite ngaih pawimawh a hlawh em em ngai lova, amaherawh chu a thlah kal zel te erawh chuan India ram history ah hmun pawimawh tak an luah a, Hyderbad mai nilo Deccan history an thlakdang lam kumkhua ta si a. Aurangzeba general Khwaja Abids hi thlahtu bul lamah pawh duai lo tak a ni a, a pa lamah chuan Islam Caliph hmasaber Abu Bakar atanga chhiara a thlah 34 na ani a, tin a nu lamah pawh Prophet Muhammad a tu chhuan kal zel, a zi ding an tih te zing a mi a ni.

Aurangzeb an Deccan a run lai hun hi Qutb Shahi Lal Abdul Hassan in Hyderabad a ro a rel lai a ni a. Aurangzeba sipaite hlauvin Abdul Hassan chu Hyderabad khawpui atangin Goconda kulh ah a tlan chhia a, Golconda kulh la tur hian Mughal sipaite hian thla riat chuang dawn an hual a ni. January ni 28 1687 ah Aurangzeb an Golconda kulh chu lak ngei tumin nasa leh zualin bei(h) pui a thlak a, chumi ni chuan a sipai general Kwaja Abid chu hmelma laipui mu in deng fuh in a ban dinglam a vawrh bal sak vek a.A hliam tuar lovin nithum hnu ah a boral zui a ni. Chumi hnu thla sarih a liam hnu ah Qutb Shahi lal Abdul Hassan commander Abdullah Khan Panni chu Aurangzeb sipai ten thamna na pe in September ni 21 1687 zanah Goconda kulh luhna khawtlang lam a mi (western gate) a rawn hawng ta a Mughal sipate chuan Golconda kulh chu an laksak ta a ni. Hemi zan atang hian Hyderabad khawpui chhunga kum 98 dawn lai ro lo rel tawh Qutb Shahi Dynasty chu hneh annih tawh avangin kumkhua a ding chhuak leh tawh ngai lo turin a tawp ve ta nghal a, Mughal lal Aurangzeb lalramah rin luh niin thuneih na pawh a kut ah a awm ta vek a ni.

Hyderabad mipuite tan Lal thar a piang ta:
Ral rama thi ta Aurangzeb sipai General Khwaja Abid fapa Nawab Ghaziuddin Khan chuan Aurangzeb Prime Minister Sadullah Khan fanu nupui ah a nei a, fapa a hring a, a hmingah Emperor Aurangzeb chuan Mir Qumaruddin a sa a. Kum ruk a nih in a pa in Mughal court ah a hruai a, Aurangzeb chuan mansab** nihna a lo pe a, a pa hnenah chuan “I fapa chal ah hian nakina lal ropui tur a ni tih chhinchhiah na arsi chu a eng a ni” tiin a hrilh nghe nghe. Kum 1712 ah Aurangzeb a hnua Mughal lal Pasarihna Farukhsiyar chuan Mir Qumaruddin chu Viceroy hna Deccan a chelh turin a ruat a, a nihna hming (title) ah Nizam-Ul-Mulk Fateh Jung tih a ni a. Tichuan, Mir Qummaruddin chu Nizam hmasaber a lo nita a ni.

Nizam-Ul-Mulk (Mir Qummaruddin) chu Emperor Faruhksyar a ngenna angina kum 1719 ah Delhi ah Deccan a tangin a chho a. Chutah Diwan (Prime Minister) nihna Farukhsiyar thlaktu Muhammad Shah chuan a lo pe a. Mughal court atang chuan banna siam in kum 1724 ah Deccan lamah Viceroy nih leh tumin a let a, mahse viceroy thar Mubariz Khan chuan a hmun a lo kian phal tawh bik si lo a, indo a puang ta a. Berar Ditrict huam chhunga Shakar-Khelda hmunah an in do ta a, Mubariz Khan chu hnehin a nunna pawh a laksak nghal a ni. Hemi indo na a chak avang hian tumah Deccan huam chhungah a mah khing pha tur an awm lova, Delhi lama Mughal Emperor hnenah pawh Deccan Viceroy thar a nita tih finfiah nan Mubariz Khan lu tan bun chu a thawn chho a ni. Nizam-Ul-Mulk chu title thar ‘Asaf Jah’ ti a hriat lar a ni ta a. Deccan Viceroy thar Asaf Jah chuan Aurangabad chu a rorelna thuthmun atan a ruat zet a, mahse a hnu deuh ah Hyderabad ah insawn in Hyderabad khawpui chu Asif Jahi Dynasty khawpui tih a lo ni ta a ni.

Chhuan sarih bak in daih lovang:
Tumkhat chu Nizam-Ul-Mulk Deccan khawtlang lam pan ramhnuai a sapel a kal haw lam hian a ril tam lutuk chuan sakhaw puithiam pakhat a tawk a, ani chuan eitur chhang a lo pe a. A theih anga tam ei turin Nizam hnenah chuan a a hrilh a, mahse chhang chu pasarih bak a eizo thei lova, puithiam chuan he ti hian a thlah kal zel dan tur a hrilh lawka, “Chhang pasarih i ei zova, chhang pakhat zel khan chhuan khat a en tira, i thlah te chu chhuan sarih thleng bakin ro an rel lovang” tiin.

Nizam hmasaber Asif Jah chuan rorelna pumhlum chang in Deccan ah kum 77 anih thlengin ro a rel a. May ni 21 kum 1748 Burhanpur ah a thi ta a ni. Hetih hun lai hian India ramah European Nations te an lo lut nasa tawh a. Nizam lalthuthleng luah tum hian Asif Jah a fapate pawh an in ti buai nasa hle. Afapa Nasir Jung chu British hovin an tanpui a, a tupa Muzafar Jung chu a ai awh tir tumin French.lam an lo thawhpui bawk a. A tawp ah chuan Nasir Jung chuan a pa ai a awh ta a. Kum 1750 in French sipai te nen Arcot hmunah an in dova, a hneh lova, a ai ah Muzafar Jung chu Nizam lal ah a tang leh a. Muzafar Jung chu Nizam anih kum khat hnu ah thah a ni a, a ai ah a fapa Salabath Jung chu Nizam atan ruat a ni. Kum 1762 Salabath Jung chu a unaupa Nizam Ali Khan in a luahlan leh a ni. Heng Nizam pathum Nasir Jung, Muzafar Jung leh Salabath Jung te rorel hun chhung hi a rei lo em avangin Nizam tak tak a chhiar anni lova (Historically recognize anni lo). Ahnuai a mi Nizam Lal in dawt dan hi han en vang vang ila, heng kan sawi Nizam pathum te hi chhiar tel lovin chhuan sarih(7) chiah an ni.

Nizam lal chhungkaw inthlah dan:
1. Mir Qamaruddin Khan, Nizam ul Mulk, Asaf Jah I (1720-1748)
2. Mir Ahmed Ali Khan, Nizam-ud-Dowlah Nasir Jang (1748-1750)
3. Nawab Hidayat Mohi-ud-din Sa'adu'llah Khan Bahadur, Muzaffar Jang (1750-1751)
4. Nawab Syed Mohammed Khan, Amir ul Mulk, Salabath Jang (1751-1762)
5. Nawab Mir Nizam Ali Khan Bahadur, Nizam ul Mulk, Asaf Jah II (1762-1803)
6. Nawab Mir Akbar Ali Khan Sikandar Jah, Asaf Jah III (1803-1829)
7. Nawab Mir Farkhonda Ali Khan Nasir-ud-Daulah, Asaf Jah IV (1829-1857)
8. Nawab Mir Tahniat Ali Khan Afzal ud Daulah, Asaf Jah V (1857-1869)
9. Fateh Jang Nawab Mir Mahboob Ali Khan, Asaf Jah VI (1869-1911)
10. Fateh Jang Nawab Mir Osman Ali Khan, Asaf Jah VII (1911-1948)

Nizam Ali Khan hi Nizam pahnihna tia koh a ni a, a ni hian Hyderabad ah kum 40 dawn ro a rel a. Hetih hun lai hian Nizam hian Maratha nena an indo na ah French Sipai Officer bang Michel Joachim Marie Raymond sipaite te nen inrem siamim ral an bei tlang a ni. Tin, Mysore lal Tipu Sultan leh British sipai te an in do tum pawh in British sipaite pui turin a sipai te a tir chhuak a ni. British sipai te nen a thawh ho na an siam(Subsidiary Forces) ah hian Nizam tana thil lawmawm loh tak tak a awm a, sipai infantry leh cavalry ho hlawh chu Nizam tum tur a tih ani a, heta tang hian Nizam lal in British hnenah leiba tam tak a neih phah ta ani. Chubakah infantry 6000 leh cavalry leh artillery 9000 mamawh hun huna thawn vat tur in Bristish hnenah thu a thlun pui a. Chu a thu an thlun hnu rei vak lo Agust ni 6 1803 ah Chowmahalla Palace ah kum 72 mi niin a boral ta a ni.

Nizam pathumna Sikandar Jah chu a pa thih hnu lawk hian Nizam atan lakluh a ni a, Mir Alam chu a Prime Minister atan a ruat a. Secunderbad tih hming pawh hi ama hming chawia phuah a ni nghe nghe. Kum 26 ro a rel hnu in May 1829 kum 62 mi niin a boral. Hemi hnu hian Nasir-ud-Daulah chu Nizam pali na atan lak luh a ni a. Ro a rel hun chhung hian Salar Jung chu Minister atan a ruat a. Salar Jung hian rorelna leh ral rel kawngah nasa takin Nizam hi a tanpui a ni.

Kum 1857 May ni 17 Nasir-ud-Daula chu a thi a, afapa Afzal-ud-Daula chu Nizam panga na atan lakluh a ni a.Hetih hun lai hi India rama Sepoy Mutiny hun lai kha a ni a, thilmak deuh chu Hyderabad Nizam khan India sipaiten hmar lamah nasa taka British laka an hel lai khan British a tanpui zawk tlat a ni. Kum 12 ro a rel hnu in kum 1869 February 26 khan Nizam Afzal-Ud-Daula chu kum 43 mi niin a thi a. A ai awh tur hian a fapa kum 3 mi Mir Mahboob Ali Khan chu ruat a ni.

Nizam paruk na atana ruat thar chu naupang kum3 mi chauh anih avangin kum 18 a tlin hma a ai awh a rorel turin Salur Jung chu ruat a ni a. Hetih lai hian India rama British in ro an rel lai a nih avangin Nizam thar dah ngheh chungchang ah leh an thawhpui tur ruat chungchang ah pawh an in rawlh thuk hle a ni. Mir Mahboob Ali Khana rorel lai hian Hyderabad ah provisional councilmember panga awmna a din a ni.. Kum 1911 August ni 31 ah a boral a fapa Mir Osman Ali Khan chuan a ai rawn awhin Nizam pasarihna atan lak luh a ni.

Nizam pasarihna Mir Osman Ali Khan hi officially-a Hyderabad Nizam hnuhnung ber a a ni. Kum 37 chhung (1911 atanga1948) ro a rel a ni. A lalram zau zawng chu 86,000 Sq. miles a zau a ni a, England leh Scotland ram pahnih belhbawm ai pawhin a zau zawk tiin an sawi thin.

Nizam Mir Osman Ali Khan hi khawvela mi hausa ber tia sawi thin a ni a, New York Times in a kumkhat income a chhut sak dan chuan $2,500,000 atanga $50,000,000 niin a tarlang a, rangkachak $250,000,000 man hu leh lunghlu/lung mantam $2,000,000,000 man hu a nei tiin a tarlang. A hun laia khawvela hausa hmingthang Henry Ford leh a fapa Edsel te sum neih zat chu $1,000,000,000 nia sawi a ni a, chu chuan Nizam hausakna zah ve pawh a phak lo. Kum 1917 ah British sawrkar tan a sum leh sipai chakna a theh chhuah nasat avangin lawmthu sawi nan £25 million a pek bakah title thar ‘Most Faithful Ally of the British Empire’ nihna a hlan bawk a ni.

Mir Osman Ali Khan hian khua leh tuite tan thil tha tam tak a tih sak a, chung a thil tih zing a langsar tak pakhat chu kum 1916 khan Osmania University a din a, Tuna Osmania Univeristy hnuaia Arts College Building mawi tak pawh hi mipui ten zirna an neih theih nan tiin phal takin a pe a ni.Hyderabd mipui ten tui intur hnianghnar a an neih theih nan tuikhuah Tungabhadra leh Nizamsagar ah te a siam a, a thil tih avang hian Hyderabad chu India ram khawpui te zinga tui in tur hniang hnar ber a lo nih phah a ni. Kawngpui zauhna leh a siam that hna te nasa takin a thawk a, rail kawng a siam bawk a, a hun lai hian Sawrkar tanpuina in co-operative credit societie leh agricultural bank te a din bawk a ni. A in sak ropui zual zingah tunlai thlenga mite ngaihhlut chu Central State Library, Assembly Hall, Jubilee Hall leh Osmania General Hospital te, Andhra Pradesh High Court Building, Hyderabad Old City hmun a mi te hi an ni.

Nizam pasarihna Mir Osman Ali khan hi lal fel tak ani tih a hriat theih na chu Hyderabad leh a ram chhung mai nilo, hmun dang ah pawh tanpuina a pe nasa hi a ni. Deoband hmuna Muslim theological school tanpuina pawisa tam tak a pe a, Benaras Hindu University tan pawh sum leh pai hmang in tanpuina a pe a, tanpuina (donation) a pek chhuah zingah a Rabindranth Tagore zirna in Shantiniketan atan te, Amritsar hmuna Golden Temple atan te tanpuina a sem chhuak nasa hle a ni.

Nizam vullai nite a chuai zo ta!
Kum 1947 a India in independence a hmuh khan Hyderabad Nizam chu India Union zawm ve tura sawm a ni a, mahse a chu chu duh lovin mahni a ro in rel a thlang zawk a,. Khatih laia Prime Minister Nehru chuan ni 15 June 1948 ah Nizam hnenah duhthlanna hnuhnung pein mipui te rorelna din turin a hriattirna a chhuah am chu pawh chu pawm lovin amahin Hyderabad Legislative Assembly a din a. Hyderabad Nizam do turin turin India sipaiten ‘Operation Polo’ nei turin ni 13 september 1948 ah Lt. Gen Maharaj Rajendrasinghji kaihhruaina in Hyderabad khawpui an hual a, ni li chhung an hual hnu ah Hyderabad khawpui awptu Nizam sipaite an tlawm ta a ni. Sawrkar lam sawidan chuan thisen chhuah lovin Hyderbad khawpui leh Nizam thuneihna chu laksak ni a tarlan a ni a, mahse a taka chuan mi sang hnih chuang in nunna an chan a ni. Nizam Mir Osman Ali chuan duhthlan tur dang a neih tak lovah chuan 6 December 1948 ah Hyderabad Legislative Assembly chu a tawp ta tiin thupek a chhuak a. Tichuan Hyderabad khawpui leh a chhehvel Nizam lal ten kum tam tak chhuang ro an lo rel na thin chu India Union ah seng luh a ni ta, dan leh thupek leh ro relna pawh India sawrkar ai awhin military governor Major General J.N Chaudhuri kut ah a lo awm ta a ni. Kum 1956 ah India sawrkarin States Reorganization Committee a din chuan Hyderabad chu Andhra Pradesh state khawpui turin siam fel a ni ta a ni.

Nizam chanchin sawi a bang thei ne’maw?
Nizam tih chu Urdu tawng Nizam-Ul-Mulk tih lam tawi a ni a, a awm zia chu Lalram chhunga lal ai awh a roreltu(administrator of the realm/regulator of the realm) tih na a ni. Nizam hmasaber Asaf Jah kha Mughal lal Aurangzeb ruat a ni a, a thlah kal zel Nizam lal te pawh kha Nizam a tana ruat thar an nih reng rengin Delhi a Mughal lal hriat puina lo chuan lalthuthleng an luah ngai lo a ni. Kum 1857 a Mughal lal Bahadur Shah Zafar Burma a tan tir a nih hnu atang khan tumah Mughal lal te atangin Nizam thar ruat tu tur an awm ta si lova, Biritish sawrkar hriatpuina in Nizam lal te hi lak luh an ni ta thin a ni. Nizam lal te khan India ram an chhuahsan ngai lova, an lal ram chhuahsana hmundanga zinbo/kalbo chu thil tih theih loh tluk ah an ngai thin a ni.

Nizam lal te hi a hun lai a khawvela hausa ber chu Hyderabad Nizam tih ni thin kha an ni a, Nizam hmasaber Asaf Jah khan a thih dawn in a fapa te hnen ah ti hian thu achah a “Khawi ah pawh kal chhuak ula tangka keng lovin in kal tur a ni lo, tha taka in hmang a nih chuan ka tangka dahna in ah hian sum leh pai chhuan sarih thleng daih tur a awm e” tiin. Chuti taka hausa nisi British hovin a leiba an siam sak nasat zia si leh, Nizam lalten leiba rulh nana rangkachak/lunghlu leh an ro sum tha ber ber an deh ral nasat zia thu te, tunlai thlenga an thlah te zingah Nizam ro inchuh thubuai a tam zia te, Nizam pasarihna in a ama ai awh tura a ruat a tupa Muharram Jah nungchang mak chuang chuang te, Hyderabad khawpui a lal in a nuamsa taka chen ai a Australia ram a loneitu nih pah a bulldozer khalh a thlan tak zawk tlat thu te, Turkey rama a pu in a Muslim sakhaw hotu lu ber Caliph ni tura a ruat thu te sawi dawn ila hun leh hmunin in daih dawn silova….Abids street vela chawlhni inkhawm ban paha in kal fuh hlauh anih chuan lehkhabu kawngsira an zawrh thin zingah hian Australian Journalist John Zububrzycki ziah ‘The Last Nizam’ tih hmuh tur a awm thin a, lei la keini sawi ai a fiah leh ngaihnawm hian Hyderabad Nizam lal chhungkaw chanchin leh an lo tawp tak dan te i hriat belh thei ngei ang.

------------------------
End Notes:
*Deccan area hi India chhimlam ram a awm a ni a, Deccan area huam chhung hi chhim lamah Narmada River, hmar lamah Satpura Mountain Range, chhak leh thlangah eastern leh western Ghats ten a hual vel a, tunlai a Maharasrhra Chhattisgarh, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka etc, state huam chhung ram leh mipuite sawina a ni e.

**Mansab tih hi Mughal empire hnuaia sipai hotute nihna san zawng leh thuneihna neih zat sawi na a ni.

Sources & References:

1. Zubrzycki, John: The Last Nizam, Picador, Pan Macmillan Australia Pty Limited, 1 Market Street, Sydney.2006
2. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nizam
3. http://www.hyderabad.co.uk/nizam.htm
4. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hyderabad_(India)
5. http://www.indianetzone.com/5/aurangzeb.htm

Pictures courtesy:Pic 2&3 http://www.india-seminar.com, Pic.4. www.greatmirror.com

No comments:

Post a Comment