Thursday, January 29, 2015

Mizo te chanchin a lanna tlangdang atangin



(This article is written in my mother tongue i.e Mizo language also known as Mizo tawng, it's about the history of Mizo written with the perspective of James C. Scott's book 'The art of not being governed')
Buh hmun - Agriculture Jhumming (Swiddening) site in Mizoram, India (Zomia)

- Lalzarzoa, 
Department of History,
 University of Hyderabad
Mizo chanchin (History) sawi apiang in kan pi leh pu te kha Chhinlung puk atanga lo chhuak in khawchhak atangin khawthlang lam pan a rawn pem thla zel an nih thu hi kan hriatdan tlanglawn ber leh lehkhabu lam a ziaktute pawh in an ziah dan a ni. Kan hriatdan tlangpui berah chuan kan pi leh pute khan khawchhak lam ram hla tak atangin khawtlang an rawn pan zel a, an kalkawng ah ram leh hmun hrang hrang te rawn paltlangin a chang chuan hnamdang te nen a indo leh a changa khawsak ho te pawh an nei thin ni a sawi a ni. Hei hi kan Mizo historian te pawm dan tlangpui pawh a ni mek a ni. 
Kan pi leh pute kha engvanga thlang rawn tla nge an nih a, ram hausa leh hmun rem zawk kalsan a tlangram chhengchhe zawk leh eizawnna pawh din harsatna hmun hla zawk rawn pan thla zel an nih chhhan hi thlirna tlangdang atang in thlir ho kan tum dawn a ni. He ngaihdan hi tunhnai lawk a Yale University a Professor pakhat James C.Scott chuan lehkhabu “The art of not being governed” tih ziak in Southeast Asia a tlangram a cheng hnam hrang hrang te (an zavai a khaikhawm nan a ‘Zomia’ tih hming lem a vuah tak) te chanchin zir chiangin, heng hnam tlem zawk te hian an bul vel a hnam lian zawk te bel lova an lak atanga tlan hrang a mahni pual a khawsak an rel zawk na chhan chu an mahni a awm a rorelna pumhlum (full sovereignty) neih an duh vang zawk a ni tiin a sawi a. Chu thlirna thar a rawn siam chhuah chuan khawvel hmun hrang hrang a zirna lam a mithiam te zing ah pawh nasa takin ngaihdan thar a rawn pe a, mithiam te zing ah inhnialna (debate) pawh a tih tam phah hle a ni. He thuziak pawh hi Prof.James Scott thlirna tarmit hawh in kan Mizo pi leh pu te chanchin (history) awmsa atangin thiam tawkin a lanna tlangdang atangin kan chhui ve dawn a ni.
Chhaktiang kawl rawn atangin:
Mizo pi leh pu ten thlang an rawn tlakna kawng ah hian hmun hrang hrang pal tlangin hnam hrang hrang an rawn hrawn thla ni a sawi thin a ni. K.S.Latourette (The Chinese-Their History and Culture, New York,1947) in a ziah dan chuan China atanga hnam hrang hrang te an pemdarh na chhan chu khatih hun khan China ram a Emperor hmasaber Shih Huang Ti (246-210 B.C) khan a lalram tihngheh nan a bul vel a lalram tenau ho leh khawpui hrang a lal tenau ho te kha a ban vek a, ram rorelna chu hmunkhat atanga rorelna kenkawh (centralized administrative system) tuma hma a lak vang a ni tiin a sawi. Heng hnam hrang hrang in China lalram an pem chhuah san nasat lai hian Mizo pi leh pute pawh kha an tel ve niin chhuitu (historians) tam tak chuan an ngai a ni. Mizo te hi historian te an chhui dan chuan China ram an chhuahsan hnu in Burma ram rawn thleng thla in kum 1 AD intan tirh bawr lai vel khan Chindwin luipui phai an thleng a, hetah hian hun enge maw chen an khawsa a, chuta tangin khawthlang lam pan zelin Kawlphai (Kabaw Valley) ah an lut thla ta zel a ni. Heta an awm laiin hian B.Lalthangliana ziak dan chuan Burma mi Kawl ho nen pawh an in chenpawlh nasa ni a ngaih a ni a, an hnen atang hian loneih dan te pawh an zir chhuak niin a ngai hial a ni.
Kawlphai ah hun engemaw chen an chen hnu in Mizo ten Bungpui  awmna ti a kan sawi thin hmun  Khampat an in suan leh a ni. Mizo ziaktu hmasa K.Zawla chuan Khampat a an awm lai hian tam nasa tak a tla a, an mahni awptu Lal a lo fello bawk nen he hmun hi 1170.A.D vel khan an chhuahsan leh niin a sawi. B.Lalthangliana erawh chuan an mahni aia hnam chak zawk ten an rawn run vanga insawn chhuak niin a ngai an pem chhuah hun pawh 1200.A.D hmalam niin a ring thung a ni. Khampat atang chuan Mizo pi leh pu te chuan Chin Hills ah awmhmun an rawn khuar thla leh a. 1250-1400 A.D bawr velin Thantlang leh Run lui bawr vel ah an khawsa a, chuta tangin 1450-1700 A.D ah chuan Lentlang leh Tiau ah thlang an rawn tla tawh a ni. Heta an awm laiin hnam hrang hrang te pawh khaw hran neiin an in din tan a, heng hun lai hi Mizo hnathlak te an mahni hnam ang zel a an awm hran tan tir lai bawr vel niin sawi a ni thin. Tichuan hnam bil te te an khawsak chhoh tak ah chuan Mizo hnathlak te chu thlang an tlak pawh a in khuangrual lo ta nuai a, Dr.Sangkima chhui dan chuan Sailo lal hnuai a awm Lusei te khan Tiau lui rawn kan in kum zabi 17 A.D leh kum zabi 19 A.D inkar ah tuna Mizoram kan tih ah hian an rawt lut ta a ni.
Phairuam a len reng mai zawng:
Pi leh pu ten thlang an rawn tlak na kawng kan sawi tak ah hian a changin luipui phai ruam ah khawsak an rel a, a changin tlangram chhengchhe zawk ah an pemsan leh a. Ngun taka thlir in Mizo khawtlang nun inrelbawlna mumal tak (Lal bik neih leh sakhua an biak dan ah te)  an neih tan hun lai vel hi pawh phairuam (valley state) kalsan a tlangram a an awmlai ( a bik in Lentlang vel a an awmlai) hun a ni zawk in a ngaih theih hial a ni. Kan pi leh pute khan phairuam a tui leh leitha zawk hmun a an chen lai khan ei leh bar tur te thawhchhuah a awlsam zawk awm si a, engatinge an in benbelh zawk mai loh le? Phairuam ah chuan midang thuhnuai ah kunin an mahni aia hnam chak zawk te rorelna hnuai ah an awm a, mahniin rorelna zalenna an neih loh vang a ni tih hi a chhanna langsar tak chu a ni.
Phairuam a an chenpui hnamdang an mahni thunun tu te khan an thawhchhuah atangin chhiah an laksak chang te a awm fo lo thei awm si lo a, a chang leh sal ang thawthang te pawh in an chhawr chang te pawh a awm ngei ang. Indo leh inrun a awm changin apiang in ral do turin an duh reng vang ni lo in an mahni awptute khan an rawih luih chang pawh a tam khawp in a rinawm a ni. Tlangram a awm aiin chuan Phairuam ah chuan ei leh bar thawhchhuah pawh a awlsam zawk in a rin theih a, mahse mi thunuai a kun reng bik ai chuan ei leh bar thawhchhuah chungchang ah pawh kum tam daih tur khawl theih lohna hmun tlangram pan kha an tan chuan zalenna an hmuhna a nih tlat avangin tih makmawh a ni ve tho si a ni.
Phairuam ah chuan mimir in eizawnna atan leilet (wet rice cultivation) ang chi hmunnghet awmsa ah leitha leh tui awlsamna hmun ah hna an thawk kumtluan thin a ni. Lal chak leh intodelh nih an duh avangin mipui te hnen ah an thawchhuah atangin chhiah khawn leh hna in thawh luih tir chang a awm fo thin a, heng thupek te hi an zawm lo anih chuan hremna na tak an chung ah an mahni awptu te hian an lek fo thin in a rinawm a ni.
Pi leh pu ten thlang an rawn tlak hun lai hi hnam hrang hrang indo leh inrun thin hun lai a nih avangin Lal chuan an lalram venghim turin mihring thachakna (man power) an mamawh nasat hun lai tak a ni bawk. Chumi avang chuan an mipui te kha an pembo mai a hlauhawm avangin an tan a ei leh bar thawhchhuahna hmun nghet ngaihtuahsak kha an tih makmawh a ni a,kum tin a lo neina sawn ai chuan lo nghet an neih chuan lal tan pawh a mipui te thunun a awlsam phah lehzual a ni. Mipui ten lo nghet an neih chuan kum tin a lalram chhung a an buh leh bal thar chhuah tur zat te lo chhut lawk theih a ni a, Lal tan chuan a lalram sawhngheh nan leh ram venhimnan kawng a hma a lak nan nasa takin a pui dawn avangin lo nghet mipui ten an neih nan tuikawng te siam sakin thlai chi te a ngaihtuah sak thin bawk a ni. Amaherawh chu mi avang chuan lal tan an buh leh bal thar chhuah atanga chhiahkhawn erawh tih makmawh a ni ve ta thung a ni.
Kan pi leh pute chanchin ah hian han chhui kir ta ila, Chindwin luipui phairuam a awm lai te, Kawlphai (Kabaw) an awm lai te leh Khampat a awm lai hun te, hnam lian zawk te rorelna hnuai ah an kun thin avang khan kan sawi lai mek lal rorelna ang hi an hrawn nasa ve hle in a rin theih a ni.
Zalenna zawngin Tlangram ah:
Kum tin a lo neihna insawn thin kan pi leh pu te khan tlangram lo neih (shifting cultivation) hi an duh reng vang zawkin an lo kalpui a ni thei angem le? He ngaihdan hi James Scott chuan tun hma a Southeast Asia a hnam tenau zawk te khan tlangram lo neih an thlan zawk chhan kha an mahni duhthlanna (political choice) a ti hial a ni. Tlangram lo neih chu phairuam a leilet nen a khaikhin chuan a thar pawh a hlawk lo zawk a, mahse, a hmangtu mipui te tan chuan an mahni awptu hnam chak zawk te lak atanga an invenna tha tak a ni thung a ni. Phairuam a lo nghet angin tlangram ah chuan kumtin a hmun ngai ah lo a neih ve theih loh avangin an lo neih na hmun ah an pem kual reng  a ngai a, a thar chhuah zat tur pawh mumal a chhut lawk theih a nih ve loh avangin chhiahkhawn na atan a rem lem lo. Kum tin a insawn a ngaih thin avang in buh leh bal pawh kum khat tla thar chhuah mai a tawk a, nakin hun atan a lo khawl khawm a remchang ve loh avangin an bul vel a  hnam chak zawk te tan pawh tlangram lo neitute va run fo kha a hlawk lem lo a ni. Pi leh pute khan tlangram lo neih chu hnam chak zawk ten an rawn run theih na tur lak a an in venna atan an tih makmawh zawk a ni.
Hnam chakzawk indo leh inrun thin te  kara khawsa an nih avang khan tlangram lo neih ah pawh thlai chin dan thleng a fimkhur a ngai thin in a rinawm a, thlai thar rang leh hmin hma chi te an ching uar thin in a rinawm a ni. Tin, thlai kung nei chi lam ai chuan lei lam a zung nei chi leh leichhung a thar chi (bal, pangbal, kawlbahra etc.) te  an ching uar zawkin rin a ni. Thlai zung leh bulbal nei chi an chin chhan pakhat ah chuan hnam chak zawk ten rawn runin an buh thar te, ranvulh te leh hmanrua te rawn khawm mahse leichhung a awm thlai te chu hmuh mai an awlsam loh avang in chutiang a inrun a lo thleng a nih pawh in ei tur an lo khawl ruk ve na tha tak a ni. Thlai zung leh bulbal nei chi te hi a thar hnu ah pawh sawngbawl nasat em em ngai lova eitur a chan mai theih anih avangin pi leh pute pawh khan thlang an rawn tlakna kawng ah khan an ching uar thin in a rinawm.
Savun lehkha ui in a ei daih:
Mizo pi leh pute chauh ni lo Southeast Asia a hnam hrang hrang te pawh hian tunhma pi leh put e hun a ziak leh chhiar an neih thin thu leh chu an ziak leh chhiar thiamna chu an hloh thu sawi tur a tam khawp mai. Akha hnam chuan lawi vun a siam lehkhabu an nei thin a, mahse an riltamin chu chu an ei a, ziak leh chhiar an hloh phah niin an sawi a,  Wa hnam te chuan an bawngvun lehkha an neih thu leh an riltamin an ei a, chuta tang chuan ziak leh chhiar an hloh tak thu an sawi bawk. Karen ho pawh in tiang hian an sawi ve bawk, Unau mipa pathum Karen, Burman leh Han ho te hnen ah savun lehkha pek an ni a, Burman leh Han ho te chuan uluktakin an vawng tha a, Karen pa chuan chu savun lehkha chu lo lu ah a hnuchhiah a, a hlo thlawh hlanin ransa in a lo ei daih niin an sawi thung. Laos ram a Khmu (Lamlet) hnam te chuan tiang hian an sawi thung, Khmu hnam khaw pasarih a awm te chuan an bul hnai awm Tai hnam ho dodal nan tlang pakhat ah hnathawk turin an kal khawm a, chuta an thutiam chu lawi vunah ziakin tlang chhip ah chuan an phum a, mahse a hnu ah chu savun thuziak an phum chu miin lai chhuak in an ru bo ta a. Chumi an ruk bo ni atang chuan ziak leh chhiar an theihnghilh a, chu mai bakah chumi hnu chuan Tai hnam hovin min awpbet ta a ni tiin an sawi bawk. Pi leh pu te hun ah hetiang a savun lehkha tihbo thu hi sawi tur a tam hle, tun tum ah hian sawi vek sen pawh a ni lo a, kan Mizo pi leh pute savun lehkha pawh kha sumhmun a an dah chu ui in a lo ei ta niin sawi a ni.
Tun hnu a thangthar zawk ten ziak leh chhiar kan lo thiam hnu hian kan pi leh pu ten savun lehkha ui an lo ei tir ta mai kha kan dem viau mai thei e. Mahse, thlirna tlang dang atang chuan an tan khan savun lehkha (ziak leh chhiar) kha an mamawh ber a ni lem lo a ni. Ziak leh chhiar thiam chu hnam lian zawk mahni a lalram hran nei te tan a thil tul a ngaih a ni mah a, an tan chuan sipai hming chhinchhiah nan te, chhiahkhawn zat chhinchhiah nan te, lal thupek emaw dan leh thupek chhuah nan te, mipui zat chhinchhiah nan te leh thildang a khua leh tui te awmpkhawm nan thil tul tak a ni. Nimahsela tlangram pilril tak a cheng hnam tlem te leh mawlmang zawk a khawsa kan pi leh pu te tan kha chuan ziak leh chhiar an nei lem loh pawh khan an nunphung a khawihdang lam chuang em em lo a ni. An thlen chin leilung leh ram mil zel a khawsak rel chawp mai thin kan pi leh pute tan khan savun lehkha lo kawl ve reng kha an tan a hman tangkai na a awm lem lo a ni ang e.
Savun lehkhaziak an lo ti bo kha thlirna tlang dang atang chuan an tana in venhimna leh khasawk rel nan a thil tih awm tak a ni ve tho a ni. Suangtuahna in chhui kir ta ila, ziak leh chhiar te lo neiin engkim ziakin lo kawl tha thlip thlep ni ta se, an mahni lo awp thin tu hnam chak zawk te khan tlangram a an pem bo ta te kha rawn chhui chhuakin, hei chumi lai chuan kan thunuai ah in awm thin tih in ziak vek alawm a ti te pawn an rawn hruai let leh fo thin mai thei a ni. Tin, hnam hmasawn hmasa zawk te inrelbawl dan atanga chhutin  ziak leh chhiar hi lo nei ni tase kan pi leh pu te nun a zonunmawi kan tih tam tak te kha hmuhtur a awm tlem phah ve mai thei  a ni. Engkim ziak a vawn that a nih chuan an mahni zingah intluk tlanna an tih te pawh kha a awm tlem phah hial zawk ve mai thei a ni. Intluktlang tak leh lungrual taka chen ho an duh avang khan kan pi leh pu te khan engmah ziak a hnuchhiah duh lovin, an thlen chin mil tawk ang zelin an khawtlang  nu kha an kalpui zawk a ni thei angem? tih hi thlirna tarmit dang vuah chung a ngaihdan dang awm ve thei tak a ni. Claude Levi-Strauss chuan tiang deuh hian a lo sawi a “Ziak leh chhiar  neih hi hmunkhat atang chauhva rorelna kal pui tum tan chuan thil tih makmawh a ni a, ruahman lawkna awmsa hnuai a rorelna kalpui dan tur  rawn tarlang in  khawpui leh lalram in awpna kalpui an duh dan te, khawtlang nun awmdan tur te a rawn tarlang a… chu chuan mimal tin te tan inthliar hranna a rawn siam chhuak a,  thenkhat  dinhmun sang ah a dah a, thenkhat dinhmun hniam ah awm tir a, mihring tih hmasawn tumna lam aiin in awpbeh tumna hmanrua a ang zawk a ni” tiin.
A chung a kan thuziak tam zawk te hi chumi kha mi chu a ni ngei e tih fiahna turin zirchianna neih a ni lo na chungin Prof.James C.Scott ngaihdan hawhin Mizo pi leh pute chanchin thenkhat  chungchang a thlirna tlang dang atanga thlir chung a ziah a ni. Pi leh pute chanchin kan lo hriat tawh thin sa sawi dalna lam ni a ni lo a, zirna (academic) chhung atanga ngaihdan dang awm thei hmang a sawi zau na ang ah a ngaih theih awm e. Kan pi leh pute khan mani a ro hran in rel duhin khawchhak atangin zalenna kawng an rawn zawng a, chu zalenna an zawnna ah chuan midang thunuai a awm ai chuan tlangram chhengchhe zawk leh pilril zawk a khawsak pawh pawisa lovin vawiin a an thlah kal zel nang leh kei atan hian tuna kan ram Mizoram hi an lo chuangchhuak ta a ni.
[He thuziak hi Hyderabad Mizo Association magazine VIRTHLILENG (Silver Jubilee Issue 2011) ah tihchhuah tawh a ni.]

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